The Three Steps of Tissue Repair


Posted on 5th January 2011 by admin in Uncategorized

strength and conditioning certificationThere are three steps involved in tissue repair.  The most important part of tissue repair is the need for cells to divide and migrate.  Injured cells release growth factors that are basically wound hormones.  These hormones set into motion the repair of the damaged tissues.  Repair occurs by regeneration and by fibrosis.  The type of tissue damaged and the severity of the damage determines whether the tissue will undergo regeneration or fibrosis.  Regeneration is replacement of destroyed tissue with the same type of tissue.  Fibrosis is the proliferation of fibrous connective tissue otherwise called scar tissue.

The first step in tissue repair is inflammation.  When tissues are injured inflammation occurs.  This is because the tissue trauma causes the injured tissue cells, macrophages, mast cells and others in the area to release inflammatory chemicals.  These chemicals cause the capillaries to dilate and become permeable.  The now dilated and permeable capillaries make it easy for the white blood cells and plasma fluid that is rich in clotting proteins and antibodies to more easily seep into the injured area.  The clotting proteins help to stop the loss of blood and hold the edges of the wound together.  These proteins also create an effective barrier that prevents bacteria and other toxins from spreading to surrounding tissues.  A scab soon forms on the part of the clot that is exposed to air.

The second step in tissue repair occurs simultaneously with the first step.  While the inflammatory process is occurring, the organization process restores the blood supply.  The blood clot that was formed is replaced with a delicate pink tissue called granulation tissue.  This tissue contains capillaries that grow in from nearby areas and lay down a new capillary bed.   These capillaries are very fragile and bleed easily.  Granulation tissue also contains proliferating fibroblasts that produce growth factors and new collagen fibers.  These collagen fibers help to bridge the gaps and some of the fibroblasts pull the margins of the wound together.  The granulation tissue will eventually become scar tissue which is highly resistant to infection.

The third stage occurs during the organization process.  The surface epithelium begins to regenerate.  This regeneration occurs beneath the scab.  Eventually, the scab will detach.  The fibrous tissue beneath will mature and contract until it looks like the surrounding skin.  The result is a fully regenerated epithelium.  The scar may be visible or invisible depending on the severity of the trauma to the tissue.

This repair process occurs when a wound like a cut, scrape or puncture breaches the epithelial barrier.  Simple infections usually result in regeneration.  Severe infections usually lead to scarring.



Posted on 4th January 2011 by admin in Uncategorized

A bunion is a deformity of the big toe.  The deformity starts at the base of the big toe.  This area enlarges and protrudes causing the big toe to point inward toward the other toes.  Often closed-toe shoes exert pressure against the protruding joint, causing pain to the joint and surrounding areas.  Bunions are actually quite common, and while not serious, can be painful, as well as limit your shoe options.  This is especially true for women who are ten times more likely to get bunions compared to men.

Bunions are mostly caused by wearing shoes with pointed toes.  Wearing high heels are the most common cause of painful bunions.  Women who love wearing high heels do not want to believe that there may come a time when they will have to choose between pretty feet or happy feet.  Having a bunion does not make happy feet.

Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis can lead to joint deformity throughout the body and can develop bunions.  Unfortunately, there is no cure for rheumatoid arthritis.

Some people may inherit the tendency to develop bunions.  If you know of a relative who had bunions, you may want to take special care of your feet.  Avoid frequently wearing shoes that can aggravate the condition, exercise and eat healthy foods.  Think of ways to incorporate strength and conditioning to maintaining your body, and hopefully this can help you prevent flipping the switch on for this genetic disposition.

Symptoms of a bunion include:

-A painful, bony lump at the side of the base of the big toe.

-A big toe that points inward and may overlap one or two toes.

-Foot pain and stiffness that interferes with walking or other activities.

-Redness and swelling around the base of the big toe.